This test tutorial will help you diagnose a P0120: Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 1 Malfunction with the Throttle Actuator Control (TAC) Throttle Body in a step-by-step manner using only a multimeter.
In case you're wondering what the heck is TAC, it means that your pickup's engine has the GM electronic throttle body (pictured above) instead of a mechanical accelerator cable.
Contents of this tutorial:
- Symptoms Of A Bad TP Sensor 1.
- What Tools Do I Need?
- Where To Buy The TAC Components.
- Circuit Descriptions Of The Electronic Throttle Body Connector.
- TEST 1: Throttle Body Connector Wiggle Test.
- TEST 2: 5 Volt Reference Circuit Test.
- TEST 3: Reference Low (Ground) Circuit Test.
- TEST 4: Testing The TP Signal Circuit.
- TEST 5: Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 1 Resistance Test.
You can find this tutorial in Spanish here: Cómo Probar El Código P0120 (Sensor TPS 1) Del Cuerpo Del Acelerador Electrónico (at: autotecnico-online.com).
This tutorial complements these tutorials (which are also found here at easyautodiagnostics.com):
- GM Electronic Throttle Body Circuit Descriptions And Testing Tips.
- Cleaning The GM Electronic Throttle Body (4.8L, 5.3L, 6.0L).
- P0220 TP Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (With Electronic Throttle Body).
- Resistance Specifications Of The TAC Electronic Throttle Body.
- How To Test The GM Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) Sensor 1.
- How To Test The GM Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) Sensor 2.
- Resistance Specifications Of APP Sensor 1, APP Sensor 2.
If your GM pickup (SUV or van) has the mechanical throttle body (with an accelerator cable) and you need to test the Throttle Position (TP) Sensor, then the article you may need is this one: TPS Test.
Symptoms Of A Bad TP Sensor 1
When the Throttle Position Sensor 1 goes bad, you're gonna' see the following symptoms:
- Check engine light will be lit on your instrument cluster.
- Diagnostic trouble code:
- P0120:Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 1 Malfunction.
- Lack of power when accelerating the engine.
- The throttle position (TP) signal is less than 0.37 Volts or more than 4.51 Volts (for more than 1 second).
- You'll see the message center display: ‘Reduced Engine Power’ (and of course the engine will operate in Reduced Engine Power mode).
- The engine may be turning off (this is done by the PCM).
The one symptoms that you'll be able to test (with a multimeter and the help of this tutorial), is the throttle position (TP) signal described in number 4 above.
What Tools Do I Need?
A scan tool is a handy (and a must have) tool to read diagnostic trouble codes and view some of the Live Data parameters it provides, but you don't need one to test TP Sensor 1.
The most important tool that you're gonna' need is a multimeter. Your multimeter can either be a digital multimeter (with a bar graph) or an analog multimeter.
Here are some of my suggestions:
- Analog multimeter or a digital multimeter with a bar graph.
- Your digital multimeter must have a bar graph to accurately test TP Sensor 1 in Ohms mode.
- The Fluke 115 digital multimeter has a bar graph. You can see an example of it here: Abe's Multimeter Recommendation.
- You can use an analog multimeter too.
- Scan tool.
- As I mentioned above, you don't need to use a scan tool to take advantage of the test info in this tutorial, but it does come in handy to read any trouble codes.
- If you don't own a scan tool yet, I recommend taking a look at these 2 articles I've written: Scan Tool Essentials You Should Know! (at: troubleshootmyvehicle.com) and Actron CP9580 Scan Tool Review (also at: troubleshootmyvehicle.com).
- Basic hand tools
- These are: ratchet wrench, sockets, etc. that you'll need to remove and replace the electronic throttle body if the Throttle Position Sensor 1 is bad.
Where To Buy The TAC Components
You can run down to your local auto parts house and buy a remanufactured throttle body for about US$165, or you can buy a new AC/Delco unit online and as you're already aware, AC/Delco is the factory original brand.
This is where you can buy the AC Delco throttle body, throttle body gasket (which needs to be installed without any type of sealant/glue) and the connector:
Circuit Descriptions Of The Electronic Throttle Body Connector
Throttle Position Sensor 1 is located inside the electronic throttle body on your pickup (SUV, van). As a matter of fact, the electronic throttle body is made up of 3 major components, and these are:
- Throttle Position Sensor 1.
- Throttle Position Sensor 2.
- TAC motor (this is the electric motor that opens and closes the throttle plate).
This means that the electronic throttle body's electrical connector has a total of 8 wires sticking out of it. 3 of those 8 wires belong to TP Sensor 1.
Specifically, each of those three TP Sensor 1 circuits feed or return a specific type of signal and these are:
- A 5 Volt DC power circuit (this is known, in GM tech terms, as the 5 Volt Reference Circuit).
- A Ground circuit (in GM tech terms, Ground is known as the Low Reference Circuit).
- Throttle Position (TP) Signal circuit.
Below, you're gonna' find a table (chart) with the job description of each of the 8 wires that stick out of the electronic throttle body's electrical connector.
|Electronic Throttle Body Connector Pin outs|
|A||Yellow||TAC Motor Control 1|
|B||Black w/ White stripe||Low Reference (Sensor Ground - TP Sensor 2)|
|C||Brown||TAC Motor Control 2|
|D||Black||Low Reference (Sensor Ground - TP Sensor 1)|
|E||Light Blue w/ Black stripe||5 Volt Reference ( TP Sensor 2)|
|F||Purple||TP Sensor 2 Signal|
|G||Dark Green||TP Sensor 1 Signal|
|H||Grey||5 Volt Reference ( TP Sensor 1)|