TEST 1: Testing For Spark At The Spark Plug Wires
The starting point of your misfire or No-Start diagnosis is testing for spark at the spark plug wires. Now, you might already have a specific cylinder you want to test first (if you have a specific misfire diagnostic trouble code: P0300, P0301, P0302, P0303, P0304, P0305, P0306, P0307, P0308) or you just don't know where to start. Well, my recommendation is to test all of the spark plug wires for spark regardless.
I want to stress the importance of using an HEI spark tester to perform all of the spark tests. Here are a couple of other important suggestions:
- Do not use a regular spark plug in place of a spark tester.
- Do not pull the spark plug wire off of its spark plug while your helper cranks the engine to verify spark. This will damage the ignition coil, if it isn't fried already.
OK, here we go:
Disconnect the spark plug wire from its spark plug.
Attach the HEI spark tester to the spark plug wire.
With a battery jump start cable connect the HEI spark tester to a good Ground point or to the battery negative (-) terminal.
Have your assistant crank the engine while you eye-ball the spark tester. If you're testing a misfire condition, the engine will start so be careful.
You're going to see only one of two results: either spark jumping across the HEI spark tester's air gap or no spark.
Repeat the test for all of the remaining spark plug wires (if applicable).
Let's take a look at your test results:
CASE 1: You got spark on all of the spark plug wires. This is the correct and expected test result.
This result lets you know that the power transistor, ignition coil, camshaft position sensor, distributor rotor and cap are OK.
Having all of the spark plug wires firing off spark eliminates all of these components as the cause of your misfire codes or 'no-spark no-start' condition. For some suggestions as to what could be the cause of the misfire condition and/or misfire codes, TEST 8: Other Causes Of A Misfire.
CASE 2: You got NO spark from any (none) of the spark plug wires. The next step is to check that the ignition coil is creating and feeding spark to the distributor cap.
You'll accomplish in TEST 3. Go to: TEST 3: Testing The Ignition Coil For Spark.
CASE 3: You got spark on some but not all of the spark plug wires. The next step is check for spark directly on the distributor cap towers that feed spark to these wires that did not fire off spark. For this test go to: TEST 2: Testing For Spark At The Distributor Cap.
TEST 2: Testing For Spark At The Distributor Cap
It's not uncommon for a distributor cap to have one or more towers that have stopped transmitting spark from the distributor rotor to their respective spark plug wires. This problem, of course, will cause a misfire condition.
This type of problem can be tested with a simple spark test. In this test step, you'll be testing for spark with the HEI spark tester directly on the distributor cap tower (or towers) whose spark plug wire did not fire off spark in TEST 1.
Important: this test is only for when one or several (but not all) of the spark plug wires did not spark!
These are the test steps:
Unplug the spark plug wire (that didn't spark) from its tower on the distributor cap.
Place the spark tester directly on the tower (see photo above).
Ground the spark tester to the battery negative (-) terminal using a jump-start cable.
Ask your helper to crank the engine while you observe the HEI spark tester.
Repeat this test with the others that did not fire off spark (if applicable).
You'll see one of two results: the HEI spark tester sparked or it did not spark.
Let's analyze each of these results below:
CASE 1: You got spark. This is the correct test result. You can conclude that the spark plug wire (that did not spark in TEST 1) is bad, replace all of them as a set.
Replacing the spark plug wires will solve your misfire condition and misfire codes lighting up your check engine light (CEL). Now, if the rest of the distributor components (distributor cap and rotor) are as old as the spark plug wires you're replacing then I recommend replacing them too.
Here's the why of the no-spark result: As the spark plug wire gets older, its normal resistance to spark increases to the point that the it can't and doesn't channel spark to the spark plug. This will either cause a misfire, or a lack of power, or a no-start condition. Spark plug wires don't last forever, especially after-market ones (average life-span is 3 to 4 years).
CASE 2: You got NO spark. This is a clear indication that the distributor cap is bad. Replace the distributor cap and distributor rotor as a set. This should solve your misfire problem. Now, if the rest of the distributor components (spark plug wires and spark plugs) are as old as the distributor cap and rotor you're replacing then I recommend replacing them too.
Here's why: As the distributor cap ages, the terminals that transmit the spark to the spark plug wires corrode. This corrosion increases the resistance to spark and over time (as more corrosion is created) this same corrosion stops the spark from passing thru' to the spark plug wires.